World's Fastest Supercomputer - Technoob Technology


IBM and the DoE launch the world’s fastest Supercomputer

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The supercomputer — which fills a server room the size of two tennis courts — can spit out answers to 200 quadrillion (or 200 with 15 zeros) calculations per second, or 200 petaflops, according to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where the supercomputer resides.

"If every person on Earth completed one calculation per second, it would take the world population 305 days to do what Summit can do in 1 second," according to an ORNL statement.

Put another way, if one person were to run the calculations, hypothetically, it would take 2.3 trillion days, or 6.35 billion years. The former "world's fastest supercomputer," called Sunway TaihuLight, can perform 93 quadrillion calculations a second (93 petaflops), while humming away inside China's National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi.

The supercomputer is an IBM AC922 system that's made up of 4,608 computer servers — each comprising processors (the brains of the computer). But what's actually going on inside these processors is what makes the difference.
"Summit's computer architecture is quite different from what we have had before," Daniel Jacobson, a computational biologist at ORNL, who is working on Summit, told Live Science. For one thing, the computer uses the new Tensor Core feature in its graphics cards (made by Nvidia), which is designed specifically for applications focusing on machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI), and to be fast.
Basically, unlike older computer chips, these chips are optimized for a special type of mathematical operation on matrices — or rectangles filled with numbers with rules for adding, subtracting and multiplying the different rows and columns. Computers equipped with AI programs often learn using so-called neural networks, which have several layers in which lower calculations feed into higher ones. And this process requires the heavy use of matrices.
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Image Credits 📷: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
"This is a brand-new feature that has allowed us to break the exascale barrier," Jacobson said, referring to a processing speed that's over a billion billion calculations per second.
In addition, Summit has loads of superfast memory (RAM) available on each of its nodes, where localized calculations can take place.
"Each node on Summit has 512 Gb [gigabytes] of RAM and the network that communicates between nodes uses adaptive routing, and is thus incredibly fast, which helps us scale the calculation across all the nodes very efficiently," Jacobson said. So-called adaptive routing means Summit has some flexibility in how it runs calculations — sort of like networks of brain cells connected to synapses.
 Summit is one of two of these next-generation supercomputers that IBM is building for the DEO. The second one is Sierra, which will be housed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Sierra, which is also scheduled to go online this year, is less powerful at an expected 125 petaflops, but both systems are significantly more powerful than any other machine in the DoE’s arsenal right now.

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